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Posts Tagged ‘earthquake resistant’


We’ve had several reports on Project Somos. This video is their May 2011 update. They’re doing outstanding work and I encourage readers to study their website and learn more about how they are building.

Compassion Fruit Society began construction of the eco-sustainable Project Somos Children’s Village near Tecpan, Guatemala. The Village will become the forever home to orphaned and abandoned children. The homes are being constructed using earthbag construction. Each home will have a professionally trained Guatemalan foster mother raising up to seven children.

Previous posts with details about their building system:
Plastering of the First Project Somos Earthbag House
Rate of Earthbag Wall Building
Somos Children’s Village
Interior Bottle Walls
Project Somos in Guatemala

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Loft detail in the HNC House, Haiti (click to enlarge)

Loft detail in the HNC House, Haiti (click to enlarge)


How do you get the most space for the least amount of money and yet still have a safe, durable, comfortable home? The two primary techniques we settled on in the HNC House design are large lofts and wrap-around porches.

In the drawing above you can see how the lofts are built. The loft joists sit on the earthbag walls at 7’-6” height and are pinned in place with rebar to help stabilize the walls. The loft joists sit directly on the pole lintels above the door and windows. Bags go between the joists and continue up three more courses to bond beam height. This method creates extra space for a more functional loft.

Coming soon: free plans on the Haitian National Congress (HNC) website
Previous post about the HNC House

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HNC Earthbag House (click to enlarge)

HNC Earthbag House (click to enlarge)


“The Haitian National Congress (HNC) asked me to conduct training next May for bright and eager Haitian adult citizens who want to become entrepreneurs, nudge their country more toward functional democracy, learn problem solving skills and learn free enterprise practices that will increase their personal income. These trainees will then return to each of Haiti’s 10 departments to teach others about developing cottage businesses, managing money, establishing new markets, increasing vegetable production and more.

Haiti needs more housing stock. For the individual Haitian, owning a home and building equity in it is a way to better oneself financially. HNC is working with folks who have minimal income. HNC encourages them to build wealth which helps the country build a stronger economy. That leads to more jobs, more children getting educated, better health care, etc. To have value in the housing market, they need a house that is modern (plumbing and electricity), durable (earthquake and hurricane resistant) and of course, affordable. With a modern and durable house as collateral you can borrow money to start a small business. Lack of access to capital is a major barrier in the third world to individuals lifting themselves out of poverty. Earthbag houses are perfect. Hands on learning how to build an earthbag house will be an important part of the HNC training. The trainees will learn, and they will in turn train others in earthbag building. Modifications can be made in the field in response to local feedback.

Dr. Owen Geiger took my basic ideas, enhanced them greatly and developed an attractive plan. It is a durable and leak proof ‘core house’ with a multipurpose room (kitchen and living room), bathroom and bedroom. There is a covered, raised, and railed front porch for Haitian style outdoor living and for social gathering. Also, Dr. Geiger designed the walls a bit higher than 8’, dropped the ceiling slightly and put two ladder accessible lofts above. There are covered porches around the entire house that can serve as outdoor cooking, food preparation and work areas. They can also be easily converted into additional rooms. HNC and I are happy with this earthbag house plan that offers so much flexibility. The owners will have several options for sleeping, storage and work areas. While the disaster resistant core house remains the same, the lofts and porches allow each family to set up the house just the way they like it in order to meet their specific needs.”

HNC Earthbag House floorplan (click to enlarge)

HNC Earthbag House floorplan (click to enlarge)


Specifications: 288 sq. ft. interior, 274 sq. ft. loft, one bedroom, one bath, covered porch area: 903 sq. ft., footprint: 31’x43’

Source: Dr. Jerry Epps Teach Democracy
HNC House website with free plans coming soon

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The earthbag village in Bongnol Haiti continues to grow slowly (10 houses in the past 9 months). Again, thanks to Patti Stouter for her wonderful guidance. Thank you for the inspiration of your website.

The Haiti Christian Development Project has completed 10 of 14 planned earthbag houses for earthquake refugees at the cost of $2200 each. Men of the community were hired to do the construction. Occupants will live in the houses at a low and affordable rent. Additional surrounding land has been acquired to extend the project.

Haiti Christian Development Project
Facebook

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Keep barbed wire straight and overlap ends in center of wall

Keep barbed wire straight and overlap ends in center of wall


An engineer of note gave us some suggestions on how to improve earthbag corners in seismic areas. The engineer is concerned the barbed wire could shift in a quake. He felt that wire mesh anchors (4- 5 with 1″ long teeth, bent so it stands up nicely) would better secure barbed wire at corners. He preferred the idea of running the barbed wire straight out the end of the wall, around a wire mesh strip at the corner and back into the wall. That way it was nearly tensioned. The barbed wire could also run up and over into the next course.
Wire mesh anchors can better secure barbed wire at corners

Wire mesh anchors can better secure barbed wire at corners


Related:
Reinforced Mesh Corners
Low-Cost Reinforcement of Earthen Houses in Seismic Areas
Source: Special thanks to Patti Stouter of Simple Earth Structures for networking with engineers at a recent earth building conference and coming up with these ideas, the drawing and photo.

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Seismic Resistant Gravel Bag Foundation (click to enlarge)

Seismic Resistant Gravel Bag Foundation (click to enlarge)


Yesterday’s post was about the earthquake resistance of earthbags. Today’s post illustrates what an earthquake resistant gravel bag foundation looks like and explains why this design is so effective. Gravel is an ideal material for this application because it’s durable, reasonably inexpensive, readily available in most areas, has high bearing strength and prevents wicking of moisture up in the wall. Gravel will shift or ‘give’ during seismic activity, thereby relieving stress without causing structural damage.

The gravel is contained in polypropylene bags or tubes, double-bagged for strength. The gravel bags rest directly on a typical rubble trench foundation with a French drain that removes water from under the building. Two courses of 4-point barbed wire between courses reduce slippage and provide tensile strength. Vertical rebar or bamboo pins are placed opposite each other and tied together through the wall with sturdy baling twine. Plaster mesh, fishing net or plastic fencing is tied to both sides for additional seismic resistance. Typical soil-filled earthbags are placed on top of the gravel bags once you’re safely above where moisture can cause problems.

Gravel bag foundations score highly in every category: ease and simplicity of construction, dirt cheap cost, durability (poly bags can last 500 years if protected from sunlight) and earthquake resistance. No concrete forms needed — just a few simple tools such as a shovel. I highly recommend reviewing some previous blog posts on this subject to better understand why earthbag foundations are a favorite among natural builders.
– A similar gravel bag foundation with strawbale walls successfully passed a shake table test in Nevada with forces that surpassed that of the Northridge quake in California.
Earthbag Foundations background info
Scoria or pumice can be used in place of ordinary gravel to create a frost-protected insulated foundation. (Frost-protected foundations save energy and greatly reduce construction costs because you don’t have to dig down to frostline.)
Rubble Trench/Earthbag Foundation
Earthquake-resistant Earthbag Building Details
Low-Cost Reinforcement of Earthen Houses in Seismic Areas
Another Earthbag Foundation Method explains an alternative way of building a foundation with gravel bags.
Rubble Bags
Flood and Earthquake Resistant Earthbag Foundations in Pakistan
Reinforced Mesh Corners
Earthbag/Stone Foundations

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Disaster-resistant hemispheric dome made with double ferrocement shells with insulating fill (click to enlarge)

Disaster-resistant hemispheric dome made with double ferrocement shells with insulating fill (click to enlarge)


This 20′ interior diameter, 314 sq. ft. design is my proposed solution to Dustin’s dilemma in Florida for houses that can withstand repeat hurricanes. See How to Build the Strongest Buildings That Can Last Centuries for more details. Features include: lexan windows with removable window and door shutters, monolithic geopolymer slab floor that’s integrated with the walls, build on high ground, plastic mesh that won’t rust, geopolymer plaster both sides, geopolymer pumicecrete or geopolymer perlite fill. Integrating the slab and dome and building on a rubble trench is ideal for seismic zones. In an earthquake, the building would slide back and forth somewhat like an upside down cereal bowl on a kitchen table (meaning the whole house remains intact as one shell).

The design will have to be tweaked for individual homeowner needs, and some details worked out with the engineer. Note how a woodstove is shown to reach a wider audience, even though it’s probably not needed in Florida. The woodstove could be replaced with an emergency water storage and filtration system, etc. A fold-out bed saves space.

Disaster-resistant hemispheric dome made with double ferrocement shells with insulating fill (click to enlarge)

Disaster-resistant hemispheric dome made with double ferrocement shells with insulating fill (click to enlarge)

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Earthquake and hurricane resistant geopolymer ferrocement cage filled with insulating material such as scoria or pumicecrete

Earthquake and hurricane resistant geopolymer ferrocement cage filled with insulating material such as scoria or pumicecrete


Dustin: I live in Florida where few domestic buildings last more than 50 years because of hurricanes. I explored the Monolithic Dome for quite some time. They have stood the test of direct hits by very powerful hurricanes that leveled the entire neighborhood; except the dome. The dome is the only sensible structure here. No other structural shape has ever withstood a Category 5+ Hurricane. EVER. Earthbag Domes seem capable of the same, or close. How can I finish an earthbag dome that won’t erode away in Florida storms?

Owen: A lot of people have been impacted by hurricanes, tornadoes and earthquakes. This is something I’ve been working on for years due to the seriousness of the problem. My article on Disaster Resistant Earthbag Housing provides some background information on this issue.

Kelly Hart, Patti Stouter and I collaborated on EarthbagStructures.com as an effort to consolidate information on disaster resistant earthbag structures, especially for developing regions.

The short answer to your question is to use either cement plaster, or preferably plaster the dome with Portland shotcrete or geopolymer shotcrete. Geopolymer is a natural material (essentially man-made stone) that’s stronger than Portland. The incredible benefits of geopolymer prompted me to start the Geopolymer House Blog, which already has over 140 blog posts.

Geopolymer is preferred because it’s stronger and more durable than Portland, although it’s not available everywhere yet and it’s probably more expensive. So fiber reinforced shotcrete would be the next best thing. I recommend ferrocement eyebrows over window and door openings to help keep out blowing rain. See Geopolymer Shotcrete on Reinforced Earthbags.

Another very similar option is to build a double shell ferrocement dome filled with lightweight insulation. Scoria or pumice would work perfectly for fill material in the core. As explained throughout our blogs many times (use the built-in search engine above to read the details), scoria and pumice are fireproof, rot proof, lightweight, insulating and do not attract insects or pests. Earthbags aren’t necessary. You could pump or pour scoria, pumice, perlite, pumicecrte or perlited cement from above directly into the core.

So far no one has built a dome like this as far as I know, even though this building system would create some of the strongest buildings in the world. I’m sure it would work. However, there’s a learning curve to everything and some details would need to be worked out. The end result would be just as strong if not stronger than monolithic concrete domes, and be more durable and more highly insulating. In addition, this design is almost certainly stronger than monolithic domes in seismic areas, because it would more readily flex under extreme loads.

Precision Structural Engineering, Inc. is the pioneer of Reinforced Earthbag Building and the only company at this time that engineers and stamps earthbag plans. They’re also expert in ferrocement and can engineer the ferrocement domes that I’m describing here. They have pre-approved my Earthbag House Plans and provide free quotes. They can get code approval in virtually every state as well as many countries.

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I’ve pulled together the recent posts on rubble bag houses, expanded and edited the info, and published a new blog post at Mother Earth News. It includes details on how to build and reinforce rubble walls.

Concrete rubble from collapsed buildings is a huge problem in Haiti. It is blocking roads and hindering reconstruction. Instead of spending millions of dollars trucking the rubble away and disposing of it, why not use it to build affordable housing? Utilizing this abundant local resource would cut building costs, save transport, and create jobs by turning a waste product that’s in the way into much needed housing. (One year after the quake, over one million people are still homeless.)

Note: There’s no shortage of rubble in Haiti. This Oxfam site says only 5% of the rubble has been cleared. That’s a lot of free material sitting close to future building sites just waiting to be used.

You can read the article for free at Mother Earth News Blog.

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World Shelters -- Bags of Shelter

World Shelters -- Bags of Shelter


Today’s post is from the World Shelters website at Appropedia.org.

Bags of Shelter is an earthbag shelter designed for World Shelters to use as transitional shelter for people in Haiti affected by the January 2010 earthquake. World Shelters is a non-profit organization dedicated to producing housing for disaster relief and general humanitarian needs. A four person design team, Humangineers, designed Bags of Shelter as part of Lonny Grafman’s Introduction to Design class at Humboldt State University.

This project was done for our 12-week assignment for Introduction to Design for the Spring 2010 semester. Our client, World Shelters, asked Humangineers to use dirt as a resource in order to provide transitional housing for the people of Haiti. Seven criteria were established by World Shelters and they include: Level of Safety, Use of Local Labor, Durability and Repairability, Ratio of Dirt of the Structure, Cost, Ease of Mass Production and Ecological Impacts.

Humangineers recommends Bags of Shelter because it is a suitable design for World Shelters and meets the client criteria. Bags of Shelter uses dirt as a primary building resource. The design also provides a way for Haitians to stimulate their local economy by making barbed wire and also by building the entire structure itself. Overall, Bags of Shelter is a functional design for transitional housing in Haiti. Humangineers recommends the use of lime plaster as an exterior coating for the structure. The total projected cost for Bags of Shelter is $272.81.

Complete article is at World Shelters Bags of Shelter.

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